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Table 1 The various diagnostic modalities for oral cancer detection.

From: Exciting new advances in oral cancer diagnosis: avenues to early detection

Visual examination
Excision biopsy and Histopathology
Oral brush biopsy (OralCDx)
Toluidine blue
Light-based detection systems
Chemiluminescence (ViziLite Plus; Microlux/DL, Orascoptic-DK)
Tissue fluorescence imaging (VELscope)
Tissue fluorescence spectroscopy
Biomarkers
DNA-analysis
Laser capture microdissection