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Table 3 Summary results of studies that deployed conventional therapeutic modalities in patients with distant metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

From: Spinal metastasis in thyroid cancer

Author, Year Number of patients (% female) Median age (yrs) at time of symptomatic distant metastatic disease (range) Thyroid cancer histology (%) Percentage of Patients with bone/spinal metastasis Signs and symptoms of distant metastasis/indication for intervention Intervention for distant metastasis (% of patients) Other metastases (%) Main outcome(s)
Schlumberger et al., 1999 394 (61.7%) - PWD (46.1%), FWD (7.5%), FLD (46.3%) BM (27.4%), BM + Lung (18.3%) Pain, swelling, orthopaedic complications RAI (88%), ERT (35%), surgery (18%), CT (12%) Lung (54.3%) 5 year/10 year/15 year survival: 55%/40%/33%
Pittas et al. 2000 146 (58%) 58.7 PWD (13%), FWD (12%), Hurthle (6%), UTC (7), PDTC (13%), medullary (4%), lymphoma (2%), unknown (43%) BM (100%), SM (54%) Pain (50%), swelling (11.0%), pathologic fracture (4.1%), SCC (3.4%) RAI (51%), ERT (75%), Surgery (26%), CT (12%) Other (36%) 5 yr/10 yr survival: 53%/35%
Bernier et al., 2001 109 (71%) 63 (20–87) PWD (17%), FWD (71%), Unknown (12%) BM (100%), SM (68%) Pathological fractures (13%), Radiculalgia (4%), SCC (28%), SCC + fracture (6%r Complete BM surgery (22%), palliative surgery (55%), ERT (36%), SET (31%), CT (2%) Lung (34%), thyroid (11.%), other (25%) 5 yr/10 yr/20 yr survival rate: 41%/15%/7%, Mean survival 5.6 years. Remission rate 4%, Mortality 84%
Petrich et al., 2001 107 (28.0%) 62.1 PWD (27.1%), FWD (72.9%) BM (100%) - RAI (100%), ERT (14%) Lung (41.1%) CR 25 (23.4%), PR 29 (27.1%), PD 53 (49.5%), Mean survival 7.9 yr
Stojadinovic et al., 2002 260 (51.2%) 58 (5–91) PWD (58.8%), FWD (34.2%), Hurthle (6.9%) BM (15%) - Surgery (22.7%), + RAI (13.8%), RAI +/− other (54.2%), Other (ERT, CT, supportive) (23.1%) Lung (32.7%), single site 59 (22.7%), multisite 77 (29.6%) 5 yr DSS: Complete metastasectomy 78%, Partial resection 43%, Non-operative treatment 46%
Zettinig et al., 2002 41 (58.5%) 60 +/− 12 PWD (14.6%), FWD (85.4%) BM (100%) Pain (37%), goitre/nodules (51%), dyspnoea (10%) Surgery (51.2%), RAI (78%), ERT (27%), CT (6%) - 5 yr/10 yr survival: 69.2%/38.9%
Durante et al., 2006 444 (62%) - PWD (42%), FWD (15%), FPD (41%) BM (26%), BM and lung (18%) - RAI + CT, EBR and/or surgery in indicated BM patients Lung (52%), other (5%) 10 yr survival in negative and abnormal study patients, 92% and 19%, respectively. BM only patients required median cumulative I-131 dose of 250 mCi to attain negative studies
Orita et al., 2010 52 (65.4%) 59 (32–77) PWD (52%), FWD (48.%) BM (100%) Pain (46.2%), mass bone lesions (9.6%), paralysis/numbness (7.7%), fracture (3.8%) Surgery (21.2%), ERT (75%), RAI (75%), CT (7.7%), Bisphosphonate (34.6%), TSH suppression (36.5%) Lung (44.2%), pleura (9.6%), brain (5.8%), liver (3.8%) 5 yr/10 yr DSS: 36%/10%
Qiu et al., 2011 106 (62%) 53 (12–85) PWD (41.5%), FWD (49.1%), Follicular variant of Papillary (9.4%) BM (45.3%), BM + other (54.7%) Pain (57.5%), pathological fracture (5.7%), SCC (4.7%) Oral RAI (100%), Surgery (24.5%) Cervical lymph nodes (16.0%), lung (42.%), other (20%) 5 yr/10 yr survival rate: 86.5%/57.9%
  1. DTC; differentiated thyroid carcinoma, PWD; papillary well differentiated, FWD; follicular well differentiated, MTC; medullary thyroid carcinoma, PDTC; poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, FLD; follicular less differentiated, UTC; undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, T; thoracic, L; lumbar, C; cervical, BM; bone metastasis, SM; spinal metastasis, SSC; spinal cord compression, RAI; radioactive iodine (131-I), ERT; external radiotherapy, CT; chemotherapy, SET; selective embolization therapy, TES; total en bloc spondylectomy, ZA; zolendronic acid, NED; no evidence of disease, SD; stable disease, CR; complete remission, PR; partial response, PD; progressive disease, AWD; alive with disease, DOD; death of disease, SRE; skeletal-related events, PFS; progression-free survival, DSS; disease-specific survival, yr; year.