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Table 1 OPC literature review: risk and protective factors for OPC

From: A review of the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma: update

Authors (Ref.) Year Published Study Location Study Type Cases Control Study Results
Rodriguez T et al. [8] 2004 Italy, Switzerland Case-Control 137 298 Heavy Smokers OR = 20.7; Heavy drinkers OR = 4.9; High tobacco and alcohol OR = 48; High coffee consumption OR = 0.25; High vegetable consumption OR = 0.39; High fruit consumption OR = 0.73; High beta carotene consumption OR = 0.48
Pelucchi C, et al. [9] 2003 Italy, Switzerland Case-Control 749 1772 Highest tertile of dietary folate intake OR = 0.53; Combined OR for low folate and high alcohol OR = 22.3
Greenberg RS, et al. [10] 1991 United States Case-Control 762 837 Low percentage of years worked OR = 2.3
Day GL, et al. [11] 1993 United States Case-Control 1065 1182 Heavy drinking among blacks OR = 17; Heavy drinking among whites OR = 9;
Cook MB, et al. [12] 2009 United States Retrospective - - Male-to-female incidence rate ratio hypopharynx = 4.13; Male-to-female incidence rate ratio oropharynx = 3.06
Ho PS, et al. [13] 2007 Taiwan Retrospective - - Highest age-standardized mortality rate for females of aboriginal groups = 3.76; Highest age standardized incidence rate for females of aboriginal groups = 2.18
Franseschi S, et al. [14] 2000 United States, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia (49 areas worldwide) Retrospective - - Internationally, OPC highest for men in Bas Rhin, France (49.4/100,000 male incidence); For men in Americas and Australia, OPC highest for blacks in the United States (17.8/100,000)
Franseschi S, et al. [19] 1999 Italy, Switzerland Case-Control 274 oral cancer; 364 pharyngeal cancer 1254 Oral cancer, ≥ 77 drinks/week, ≥ 25 cigarettes/day, OR = 228; Pharyngeal cancer, > 77 drinks/week, > 25 cigarettes/day, OR = 100
Fioretti F, et al. [20] 1999 Italy Case-Control 42 (lifelong non-smokers 864 (lifelong non-smokers OPC drinkers vs. non drinkers OR = 3.0; OPC drinking 35+ years vs. non drinking OR = 3.6; High butter intake OR = 2.7
Blot WJ, et al. [21] 1988 United States Case-Control 1114 1268 Two or more packs cigarettes smoked/day and four or more drinks/day OR = 37.7; Males who smoked filters OR = 0.5
Varela-Lema L, et al. [22] 2009 Spain Case-Control 92 230 Ever smokers OR = 27.7
Talamini R, et al. [23] 1990 Italy Case-Control 27 non-smokers; 19 non-drinkers 572 non-smokers; 213 non-drinkers Non-smokers, 14-55 vs. 0-13 alcoholic drinks/week OR = 1.5; Non-smokers, 56+ alcoholic drinks/week, OR = 2.2; Non-drinkers, < 15 cigarettes/day OR = 3.8; Non-drinkers, > 15 cigarettes/day OR = 12.9
Kabat GC, et al. [24] 1994 United States Case-Control 1560 2948 Male current smokers, users of filter cigarettes OR = 0.5
Aune D, et al. [25] 2009 Uruguay Case-Control 3539 2032 High red meat consumption OR = 3.65
Kune GA, et al. [26] 1993 Australia Case-Control 41 398 Fiber intake OR = 0.29; Vitamin C > 745 mg/week OR = 0.39
Soler M, et al. [27] 2001 Italy Case-Control 271 oral cancer; 327 pharyngeal cancer; 304 esophageal cancer 1950 Highest fiber intake OR = 0.40
Negri E, et al. [28] 2000 Italy, Switzerland Case-Control 754 1775 Highest Vitamin C intake OR = 0.63
Lucenteforte E, et al. [29] 2009 Italy Metanalysis (6 cohort, 40 case-control studies) - - High vegetable consumption pooled RR = 0.52; High fruit consumption pooled RR = 0.55
Gridley G, et al. [30] 1992 United States Case-Control 1114 1268 "Ever regularly used" vitamin E, OR = 0.5
Levi F, et al. [31] 1998 Switzerland Case-Control 156 284 Highest tertile of egg consumption OR = 2.3; Red meat OR = 2.1; Pork and processed meat OR = 3.2; Highest tertile for milk consumption OR = 0.4; fish OR = 0.5; raw vegetables OR = 0.3; cooked vegetables OR = 0.1; citrus fruit OR = 0.4; other fruits OR = 0.2
Franceschi S, et al. [32] 1999 Italy Case-Control 598 1491 Highest quintile coffee and tea OR = 0.6; Highest quintile white bread OR = 0.4; Highest quintile soups OR = 2.5; Highest quintile poultry OR = 0.6; Highest quintile fish OR = 0.6; Highest quintile eggs OR = 2.5; Highest quintile raw vegetables OR = 0.4; Highest quintile cooked vegetables OR = 0.5; Highest quintile citrus fruit OR = 0.5; Highest quintile cakes and desserts OR = 1.6
Zheng W, et al. [33] 1992 China Case-Control 204 414 Highest tertile of fruit and vegetable consumption among men OR = 0.6
Lipworth L, et al. [34] 2009 Italy Case-Control 804 2080 Vitamin D intake OR = 0.76; Heavy smokers and low dietary vitamin D intake OR = 10.4: Heavy drinkers and low dietary vitamin D intake OR = 8.5
Goldstein AM, et al. [35] 1994 United States Case-Control 487 485 Odds for OPC increases for those whose sisters developed other cancers OR = 1.6
Huebner WW, et al. [36] 1992 United States Case-Control 1114 1268 Male carpet installers OR = 7.7 (among carpet installers, 23 cases, 4 controls)
Goodwin WJ, et al. [37] 2008 United States Retrospective - - OPC greater in black than white populations; OPC survival lower in black than white populations
Morse DE, et al. [38] 2006 United States Retrospective - - OPC age adjusted incidence rates and mortality rates highest for black males; Mortality rates 82% higher for black males relative to white males
Tomar SL, et al. [39] 2004 United States Retrospective 21481 - Blacks had elevated hazard ratios compared to whites HR range: 1.20-1.53
Moore RJ, et al. [40] 2001 United States Retrospective 909   African-Americans five-year survival rate of 27.6%; white patients five-year survival rate of 52.0%. African-American and white Americans less than 60 years of age had a survival rate of 29.2% and 60.9%, respectively.
Chen AY, et al. [41] 2007 United States Retrospective 40487 - Patients with advanced OPC more likely to be uninsured OR = 1.37