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Table 1 Age-related changes according to Priebe and Lakatta [5, 6].

From: Head and Neck Cancer in the Elderly: A Retrospective Study over 10 Years (1999 - 2008)

  Influence Age-related change
Organ function Respiratory - Increased chest wall rigidity
- Decreased functional alveolar surface area, decreased gas exchange
- Decreased respiratory muscle strength and endurance
Hepatic - Decreased activity of hepatic cholinesterase
- Decrease in microsomal demethylation pathway
Renal - Reduced glomerular filtration rate
- Decreased renal blood flow
- Reduction in total body water
Miscellaneous - Reduced skeletal mass
- Reduced cortisol secretion
Cardiac - Increased myocardial stiffness
- Increased aortic impedance
- Increased left atrium size
Vascular - Increased vascular stiffness
- Decreased β-adrenoceptor responsiveness
Drug Disposition Drug distribution - Reduced total body water
- Reduced body mass
- Reduced serum albumin
Renal excretion - Reduced glomerular filtration rate
- Reduced renal blood flow
- Reduced concentrating ability
Hepatic metabolism - Reduced hepatic blood flow
- Reduced activity of microsomal oxidizing system