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Table 1 Patients at high risk [2, 13, 14]

From: Refeeding syndrome – awareness, prevention and management

• Oncology patients
• Chronic Alcoholism
• Postoperative patients
• Anorexia Nervosa
• Elderly patients (comorbidities, decreased physiological reserve)
• Uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus (electrolyte depletion, diuresis)
• Chronic Malnutrition
   - Marasmus
   - Prolonged fasting/hypocaloric feeding
   - Morbid obesity with profound weight loss
   - High stress patient unfed for >7 days
   - Malabsorptive syndrome e.g. inflammatory bowel disease, chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, short bowel syndrome
• Chronic antacid users (Mg/Al salts bind phosphate)
• Chronic diuretic users (loss of electrolytes)